ON DISC -- THE STRONGEST ENTRIES
now heard most of the Parsifal sets out there, it might be useful to know where
I'm "coming from" when I say........that the relatively new James King
Parsifal -- first released in 2003, although made in 1980(!), and only conducted
by Kubelik!!!!!!!! -- is now my preferred recording! I would say Run, Don't Walk
and get this set now!
know where I'm "coming from" when I make such a sweeping claim, I'm
enclosing a survey I slapped together some while back under the impact of the
first release in 2003 of both this Kubelik set and the remarkable restoration
of the Fritz Busch b'cast from the '30s.
are a select handful of sets that are special in one way or another, and I hope
that this survey helps put them -- and this superb Kubelik entry -- in clearer
that I have finally heard the two important Parsifals recently added to the discography
(Fritz Busch from the '30s and Rafael Kubelik from 1980), it seems it's time to
reassess the virtues and flaws of the finer recordings currently available. Out
of at least twenty or so mainline recordings out there, roughly a third of them
emerge, in my opinion, as worthy of consideration for one's introduction to the
work. Two of those are these newly released Busch and Kubelik sets. That's the
good news, and I give thumbnail assessments of these two under #1 and #6. In fact,
the new Kubelik (#6) is arguably an extremely strong candidate for a fine and
modern-sounding set of the sort many a poster might want as a useful way of learning
while I often read the refrain from others that there are a number of really good
ones -- and that therefore it's hard to settle on just one -- that's frankly not
my take, for what it's worth. I find that few recordings work superbly throughout,
although a few come so close that the one lapse, the one flaw, can be particularly
painful, in my opinion.
these two new recordings, there are eight in all that stand out, but almost all
have flaws. I'll tick them off in chronological order.
Having now heard the newly unearthed performance issued on the MARSTON label --
a 1936 Teatro Colon performance conducted by Fritz Busch -- I can say this offering
now strikes me as having the most consistent cast on disc. Busch's conducting,
while very fine, may not be a match for Hans Knappertsbusch's ("Kna"),
but it is definitely in the top tier, in my opinion. And the principals! I find
Alexander Kipnis's Gurnemanz the most insightful and the most sumptuous I've heard.
Tenderness, sorrow, pity, exasperation, anger -- it's all there -- and an ease
of understanding in his integration of the vocal line as intrinsically a part
of a superb drama marks his every utterance. Marjorie Lawrence's Kundry is almost
on the same level, although it's possible to point to one or two Kundrys who match
her (unlike Kipnis's unique Gurnemanz). Rene Maison's Parsifal may not have the
full variety of a Kipnis, but he is always musically attentive and vocally attractive,
with a degree of innigkeit that is ideal in this role. He sets a high standard
for those coming after him. The same with Martial Singher's noble-sounding Amfortas.
The cons? A number of cuts throughout, including 90 lines of Gurnemanz! In addition,
the sound is occasionally primitive, particularly in the opening measures.
The LP era starts with a 1951 Bayreuth performance, originally issued by DECCA/LONDON,
preserving the opening of Wieland Wagner's famed Neu Bayreuth production under
Hans Knappertsbusch. From this set on, all the recommended entries are literally
complete. For 1951, this release is in surprisingly fine sound, especially considering
the fact that it's a monaural recording! Its spaciousness and sense of place are
a rarity for that time. In addition, Kna's leadership captures best both the sweep
of this work and its internal world. Some of the ensemble work may not be the
acme of preparedness, and Kna's principals here, while creditable for the most
part, are no more a match for Busch's than is the case for any other set. However,
it's a boon hearing the young George London's Amfortas before throatiness overcame
him, and Ludwig Weber's Gurnemanz is deeply stirring, the finest Gurnemanz on
disc outside of Kipnis -- and we get to hear him do this role uncut. Parsifal
and Kundry are another matter. Windgassen does a fair amount of growling (the
role appears to lie somewhat low for him), however dramatically effective he is
at certain points. One still welcomes the innate sound of a voice that, while
not sumptuous like Maison's, is suggestive enough of youth -- and of the callowness
that can go with it. Hardly inappropriate for the role -- at its outset. Martha
Moedl's Kundry is always dramatically acute, imparting astounding communicative
variety to every nook and cranny of this staggeringly varied role, while imparting
true spontaneity at the same time. Nothing seems calculated. However, we hear
her in far superior vocal control elsewhere.
In 1953, Clemens Krauss took over from Kna at Bayreuth. His is a less internalized
reading than Kna's, and therefore, in the end, less affecting. But he easily matches
Fritz Busch at least. And his cast is better than Kna's -- in a way. The principals
are pretty much the same as in '51. Two significant differences, though: Moedl's
Kundry is in her element now, easily the most inspired and the most satisfying
Kundry on disc, showing us conclusively that she did have a sumptuously beautiful
voice after all as well as an infinitely expressive one, and Ramon Vinay replaces
Wolfgang Windgassen. Vinay was a much finer artist than Windgassen, with a richer
and more expressive voice. However, he is not in very fresh voice here. There
is little suggestion of youth and many a phrase seems hammered out on an anvil.
A shame, since his finest moments here, and there are a few, can move one more
than Windgassen's best. All told, Windgassen is possibly more convincing in his
overall portrayal, with youth and a (marginally) cleaner line on his side, despite
Vinay's keener insights and coloring. Neither Windgassen nor Vinay equal Rene
Maison. A delightful bonus is the First Flower of Rita Streich.
We're back with Kna again in 1962, first released by PHILIPS. Kna gives us his
finest reading of all here. All his instrumentalists are in excellent fettle,
and they and their inspired Maestro give the finest reading of Wagner's orchestral
writing on disc. In addition, the sound quality is excellent stereo, giving us
possibly the finest sound-picture available of the unique Bayreuth Festspielhaus
sound. This is crucial, since Wagner composed this score with the Festspielhaus
sound specifically in mind. Hearing this set tells us exactly why. There is a
homogeneity to the instrumental combinations that works magical emotional and
mood transformations throughout. Only when the orchestral colors are synthesized
in the way made possible by the physical layout of the Festspielhaus musicians
and the manner in which sounds are suffused through the Festspielhaus auditorium
can one achieve such transformations -- "like the shiftings of clouds in
the sky" [paraphrase] as Wagner characterized his writing for Parsifal. The
Parsifal/Kundry pairing here is generally stronger than in '51. With the youthful
Jess Thomas's Parsifal, we appear finally to have caught up with Maison: meltingly
sung and richly expressive, Thomas's Parsifal is maybe the finest on disc. Irene
Dalis's Kundry may not probe as deeply as Moedl's, but she is certainly engaged
enough to be an apt partner for her fine Parsifal, and her vocalism is astoundingly
assured. Unfortunately, the Gurnemanz of Hans Hotter is an acquired taste. As
profoundly insightful as Kipnis, it is hobbled by a voice in tatters, in my opinion.
Some will swear that there is authentic music-making here as well as inspired
drama. I simply do not hear the former (my failing?). I'm only aware of a wheezing,
tremulous sound that sadly undercuts Gurnemanz's authority. Even worse, in my
opinion, whatever fleeting musicality Hotter has left seems positively like Kipnis(!)
compared to his colleague's Amfortas! George London's 1962 Amfortas is a sad comedown
from his grand reading of '51. Throatiness has overtaken his entire instrument,
and there is not an iota of truly telling poetic nuance anywhere. One critic termed
it, I believe(?), a big dark bawl. Couldn't agree more. Depressing.
Another Bayreuth reading, this time from 1970 and released by DG, features Pierre
Boulez at the podium. His interpretation does not have the warmth of most others,
and tempi are also much tighter. There may be a consistency of feeling in the
kind of world Boulez evokes, but it is a consistency of non-feeling. Whatever
expression this set has is found in (most of) its intensely engaged principals.
All four principals are also in generally respectable vocal control, if not invariably
impeccable. They offer a series of contrasts between the vocally impeccable and
the deftly imaginative. Neither Gwyneth Jones's Kundry nor Thomas Stewart's Amfortas
may be the last word in vocal perfection. But they are never less than musical,
and they bring considerable imagination to their parts, particularly Jones. Moreover,
they both use the music itself to flesh out the drama and the characterization,
rather than overlarding "interpretation" on top of the music, always
a phony proposition. As a a result, it is Kundry and Amfortas who dominate here
and give this set its chief value. It occupies a special niche because of those
two. James King's Parsifal, OTOH, offers far superior vocalism to either Jones
or Stewart, but minimal variety of shading. It is hardly unfeeling throughout,
merely lacking a true sense of transformation. Crass's Gurnemanz also offers fine
vocalism, and an all-purpose gentleness that exerts its own special aura and does
deflect from Boulez's want of feeling but is ultimately one-dimensional.
A just-released, well-engineered set on the ARTS ARCHIVES label unveils a 1980
studio effort under Rafael Kubelik. Kubelik's is a long-lined approach with a
singing melody over all. Always beautiful and persuasively phrased. While without
the unstinting energy of a Busch or a Krauss, Kubelik picks his spots for the
full urgency heard in these other two. He shows himself fully capable of that
kind of urgency, but it is primarily the linear beauty of Wagner's score that
stays with one. He has strong principals for Parsifal, Kundry and Gurnemanz: James
King, Yvonne Minton and Kurt Moll. King is vastly improved over his reading of
ten years earlier, especially effective in the last act, bringing true generosity
of spirit to his baptism of Kundry and, most especially, to a deeply moving apotheosis
with the suffering Amfortas at the end. Maison, Vinay, or Thomas -- each of them
may bring slightly more imagination to the role, but King's sincerity and engagement
here would be welcome whatever the context. His is now a successful assumption
by practically any standard. Minton is as much into her part as Lawrence and also
a fine singer. So is Kurt Moll, whose Gurnemanz is easily in the Weber class.
As for Weikl's Amfortas, he may boast an occasionally attractive tone and genuine
feeling, but his control over his instrument can be uneven: recurrent unsteadiness
and choppy line detract from the general impression. Still, all in all, this Parsifal
makes for an attractive set, with more consistent principals in general than in
any extant Bayreuth performance, if marginally less sweep than either of the Knas.
In 1981, on ERATO, Armin Jordan came out with a studio set where the conductor
as story-teller is paramount. Not that there isn't some fine musical phrasing
here as well, but the tilt is definitely toward the kind of energy we hear in
Busch/Krauss. Jordan is to be commended as one of the few who achieves a through-line
for the tricky first act. For most of this recording, there may be relatively
little that is particularly profound or noteworthy, but nothing here lacks shape
either: a steady well-controlled reading with a palpable sense of narrative that
is welcome. His cast can boast a trio of artists in the roles of Parsifal, Kundry
and Gurnemanz who know how to convey intimacy and are expert at relating *to*
each other as real characters in a story. Reiner Goldberg's Parsifal is almost
in the maturer James King mold as heard with Kubelik, not especially profound
but simpatico and affecting enough and, at this point, still an accomplished vocalist.
Yvonne Minton repeats her fine Kundry. Robert Lloyd's Gurnemanz, I know from experience,
was to get better from here. We already have a beautiful voice and a deeply expressive
one. However, in this early recording, delivery that can be as poetic as anyone
who has ever sung this role (Kipnis included) can alternate with choppy phrasing.
At his best, he towers over all his colleagues here. At his worst, there are (very
occasional) moments of unsteadiness. Goldberg and Minton seem the more seasoned
performers in general. Unfortunately, Wolfgang Schoene's Amfortas strikes me as
pure ham: unadulterated, anti-poetic, unmusical shtick. This is a solid recording,
however relatively lacking in its full share of incandescent peaks.
Finally, in 1990, Daniel Barenboim led the Berlin forces in a digital studio recording
that in spots shows some of the finest conducting in the discography, in my opinion,
while being somewhat uncertain in much of Act I. On the positive side, Barenboim
knows how to build a scene better than anyone of his generation, when he wants
to. Exhibit A would be his Act II. This almost vies with the Kna of '62 in the
genius shown in rendering the steady ratcheting up of tension throughout the sixty
odd minutes of this sequence. Dramatically, his two principals respond beautifully.
Siegfried Jerusalem (Parsifal) and Waltraud Meier (Kundry) offer as exciting a
performance here as Thomas and Dalis for Kna. In addition, Meier's dramatic acuity
is greater than Dalis's, effective as the latter is. Meier's is one of the finest
Kundrys yet. As for Jerusalem, his is almost as intrinsically attractive an instrument
as Thomas's. But his control of it can be spotty. Sometimes, the tone has a thrilling
ring that can also carry superb poetic urgency with it. Sometimes, it gets locked
up in the throat in a disconcerting way. The finest Amfortas on disc, in my opinion,
is Jose Van Dam: all the nobility of Martial Singher, all the insight of the young
George London and a variety of nuance and shading that beggars both. Here is the
prize of this set, in my opinion. As for Matthias Hoelle's Gurnemanz, it is slightly
more consistently vocalized than Lloyd's, but it too has its occasional share
of vocal uncertainty with nowhere near the richness of Lloyd's insight and musicianship
to compensate nor the intrinsic depths of Lloyd's instrument.
a little tweaking here and there, it would have been possible for any one of these
eight sets to emerge as an utterly unflawed entry. How frustrating it was not
-- right now (and that can change;-) -- I find myself gravitating to three of
these above and beyond the rest. This is not to say that there aren't fine --
and unique -- aspects in each of the remaining five that makes each of them a
viable enough set by way of introduction to Wagner's masterpiece, considering
what's out there. This is why I would not want to be without any of these eight
in the end and why I feel it important that all eight be cited in this posting.
Nor would I view it as necessarily unfortunate were someone limited by circumstance
to only one of the remaining five. After all, since all eight are not quite unflawed
three I tend to go back to the most are the Kna '51 (#2), the newly released studio
set under Kubelik (#6, and why this took 23 years for its release is a mystery!!!!)
and the Barenboim recording (#8).
old Fritz Busch (#1) is a potent performance that would win out over every other
were it not for the cuts and the (occasionally) so-so sound. Still, its restoration
is something to be deeply thankful for.
the "niche" class (those that have something unique to them that illumines
one aspect of the work in an irreplaceable way), the Krauss (#3) and the Boulez
(#5) are the most excitingly acted of all, the Kna '62 (#4) is the most superbly
conducted and miked of all and the Jordan (#7), of those in modern sound, may
have the greatest naturalness in terms of principals who can relate to each other
and maintain a conversational and narrative flow.
going back to my (current;-) chief three -- Kna '51 (#2), Kubelik (#6), Barenboim
(#8) -- I've become more and more fascinated with the newly released Kubelik from
'80. There is a wonderful inevitability to this reading that grows on one. Having
lived with many recordings since my early twenties (in the '70s), I find myself
forgetting much of what I've heard whenever I put this set on!!! That's highly
unusual, I find.
only purchased this one in October (which is when it first came out, I believe).
But I can't get enough of it, it seems. I've played it through now at least two
or three times, and I'm still looking forward to the next playing! It's a looooooooong
time since I responded to a recording this way. It seems to get better upon repetition,
something I don't recall ever happening to me with any other Parsifal. (Its superb
engineering certainly doesn't hurt.) In fact, I find I don't want to hear any
other recording these days.
this is merely due to the initial thrill of discovery (it is at worst _one_ of
the very finest sets in the catalogue) or to something in this reading that is
indeed unique after all is still too early to say, in my opinion. I want to give
myself much more time with this first. Hence my careful itemization of all eight
sets for the time being. And hence my distinguishing both the Kna '51 and the
Barenboim as still competitive with the Kubelik.
my favorite now seems to be the Kubelik. But let's see what a year does..........
B) Kna '51 (#2)/Barenboim (#8)
C) Busch (#1)
(#3)/Kna '62 (#4)/Boulez (#5)/Jordan (#7)
I wrote that, I find my estimate of the Kubelik has continued to change somewhat......from
guarded preference to unequivocal admiration(!), leaving the '51 Kna, superb as
it is and superior as Kna's conducting clearly is, as an even more definite second
now feel that both Kna sets, both the '51 and the '62, plus the Barenboim, remain
closer in quality to the Kubelik than to the "also-rans" further on
down (fine as those are in individual respects). But the Kubelik now exerts a
pull for me unequalled by any other set -- and I've only been immersed in the
Parsifal discography for over 30 years!
line: GET IT!!!!!!!
what it's worth, I'm not in disagreement with my previous thoughts on the Kubelik
set. But I would further refine the standings today:
above is in a class by itself.
Kna '51 (#2)
C) Kna '62 (#4)
D) Barenboim (#8)
three are three of the most competitive sets.
F) Jordan (#7)
two would be unique "niche" sets.
H) Krauss (#3)
two are still of particular interest, with some amazing peaks. But I now wonder
if I'd class them as viable sets for introducing one to this score. At the same
time, I certainly wouldn't want to do without either one.
CALLAS (1923 - 1977) -- HER BEST RECORDINGS IN GOOD SOUND
-- FROM COMEDY TO TRAGEDY
CARUSO (1873 - 1921) -- A BRIEF APPRECIATION
CORELLI (1921 - 2003) -- RECOLLECTIONS AND REFLECTIONS
CARLOS -- RANDOM JOTTINGS
TENOR AND RICHARD WAGNER (1813 - 1883)
ON DISC -- THE STRONGEST ENTRIES
ROBERT MERRILL (1917 - 2004)
OF OPERA IN MINIATURE
TAUBER (1891 - 1948) -- A BRIEF APPRECIATION
IN LA TRAVIATA
OVERVIEW OF TRISTAN ON CD
TROVATORE ON DISC -- THE STRONGEST ENTRIES